This raises questions, but I do not object in principle. In Rochester, the vast majority of journeymen and laborers lived unsettled lives and moved through the city quickly looking for work, but conversion allowed some of them to fix a job and a home there.
And within their own shops, they withdrew to a separate space from the one occupied by their employees -- who became the vast majority of the city population, a transient and often unskilled pool of labor.
The owner or foreman became a member of a distinct class. They were not "normless" or individually "self-made," as Johnson says, but then, who ever is? They glared at each other in public places, and as a result, according to Johnson, "the life went out of Rochester Protestantism.
By emphasizing individual responsibility before God, he writes, revivalism freed the middle class of guilt for their inability to keep order among the workingmen. Into this fractious city came the evangelist Charles Grandison Finney in Septemberinvited by a disappointed Sabbatarian merchant, Josiah Bissell.
Johnson begins by tracing changes in the Rochester economy and in local society and politics in the s. Originally, even their workers were not so very different from the employers; the workers were household dependents being trained in the same occupation, something like adolescent children.
As Johnson acknowledges, they achieved considerable success in this. It was, Johnson stresses, a communal movement. Members of these factions often shared church pews and kinship.
A shopkeepers millennium some employers simply advertised their unwillingness to hire heathens. The revival instigated by Finney, a powerful rhetorician trained in law, healed the riven elite of Rochester.
Most of them remained, in some sense, dependent despite their best efforts. Finney did not appeal to isolated individuals. In a way, change was traditional for them.
These efforts, Johnson believes, were motivated by a genuine sense of Christian mission; A shopkeepers millennium converts were "build ing up the Kingdom of Christ in Rochester. These rival factions affiliated with factions in the New York legislature, the Bucktails and the Clintonians respectively, in competing bids for state patronage.
Laborers typically lived with their employers and worked in the same physical space, with little division between the activities of fabrication and merchandising. They probably owned less real property, and in any case, the property they owned was often secondary to their occupation rather than essential; they were not tied to the falls or to a farm.
Evangelicalism, according to Johnson, was not primarily a means for the mobile economic individualist to find meaning in life; it was instead a way for a dominant class of manufacturing proprietors to restore order to a community full of unpoliced and politically restive workingmen.
As evidence, A shopkeepers millennium adduces his finding that churchgoing wage earners were as much as three-and-a-half times as likely to settle in town as the unchurched. Most of them were accustomed to flux, even thriving on it.
Relatively few upstarts or migrants gained entrance to the ranks of the wealthy, and these relied on patronage and on the forging of new family ties.
Masters often considered their employees as members of their families, and they socialized freely with them, sharing liquor with them as a matter of daily routine and providing a certain amount of family discipline. Apparently they limit you to 20, characters. The converts of the revival expected their experience to help usher in the millennium as they brought the good news to their fellow citizens and exhorted them to join in the project of spiritual reform.
In his afterword, Johnson briefly looks beyond Rochester to other cities in western New York and in the middle west. The reason was a public campaign by the Antimasonic Party, which accused the town elite of orchestrating and covering up the murder of William Morgan, a Rochester stonemason who had planned to expose the secrets of the Freemasons.
They learned that only a changed heart, not submission to external control, could be expected to keep a man in line. Nathaniel Rochester had begun the struggle by securing from the Bucktails the naming of his town as county seat, whose county buildings would be surrounded by his own property, and then a bank controlled by his family and friends, which Clintonians took over a year later.
Among the converted bourgeois, the least commonly represented men were hotelkeepers, merchants, doctors, small shopkeepers, and lawyers. Johnson reduces the difference between these parties to an "argument over means"; the Whigs were willing to use the state to enforce sobriety and economic discipline on the American people, and the Democrats were not.
Without Christian piety, the workingman now hardly stood a chance economically. Unlike landowners and manufacturers, they had little invested, either financially or emotionally, in the concrete and established. In this account, the elite always exists, it is always a distinct class of society, it always has a coherent set of values, and it always seeks control over an other.
Yes, they were being surrounded by an increasingly alien and disturbing class of workingmen. However, Johnson notes that the modes of work were changing in the s. Among these owners, Johnson argues, kinship ties remained strong throughout the period. Finally, Johnson explains, the revivals allowed the wealthy of Rochester to come back together politically in the s.
It was also most successful among middle-class men in certain lines of work. In other words, the men who made the revival were not lone "normless men on the make"; they were respectable and secure men of the community.
Instead, they were people who together took a risk and saw it pay off, only to sense unexpected forms of defeat.A Shopkeeper's Millennium thesis: The Shopkeepers' Millennium is a case study based in the town of: Rochester, New York.
The author focuses on the town and its inhabitants through the lens of: Economy, Society, and Politics. The author's thesis. Paul E. Johnson uses his book, A Shopkeeper’s Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York,to examine the causes of the Second Great Awakening from a Marxist perspective.
A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, by Paul E. Johnson A quarter-century after its first publication, A Shopkeeper's Millennium remains a landmark work--brilliant both as a new interpretation of the intimate connections among politics, economy, and religion during the Second Great Awakening, and as.
In the book, A Shopkeeper's Millennium, by Paul. E. Johnson, a closer look is taken at the society of Rochester and how it was affected by the revivals from to A Shopkeeper’s Millennium by Paul E.
Johnson explains the religious revival in Rochester, New York, when higher classes found themselves loosing control of.
In A Shopkeeper's Millennium, Paul Johnson argues that American revivalism in the early nineteenth century was a product of class conflict.Download