The fluid is then examined to determine whether or not the patient is infected with meningitis. Equine encephalitis affects horses and humans. During the procedure, the patient lies on his or her side and a local anesthetic is injected into the skin to numb the area.
The most common form of fungal meningitis is caused by the fungus cryptococcus neoformans found mainly in dirt and bird droppings. Local extension from contiguous extracerebral infection eg, otitis media, mastoiditis, or sinusitis is a common cause. PAF, with its myriad biologic activities, is believed to mediate the formation of thrombi and the activation of clotting factors within the vasculature.
Symptoms are noticed days following the bite most people do not notice tick bites and may include headache, fever, nausea, confusion, partial paralysis, coma, and seizures. Infections and other disorders affecting the brain and spinal cord can activate the immune system, which leads to inflammation.
Since bacterial meningitis is much more severe than viral meningitis, some of the long-lasting effects are much worse in bacterial meningitis. Measles produces 2 devastating forms of encephalitis: The pathophysiology of this complication is complex and may involve many proinflammatory molecules as well as Pathophysiology of meningitis and encephalitis essay elements.
Pachymeningitis As indicated by the presence of abundant pus, pachymeningitis most often results from a bacterial infection usually staphylococcal or streptococcal that is localized to the dura. Meningitis may affect people of any age, but infants and children are the most susceptible.
Fungal meningitis could possibly result from infections of the eyes, ears, and nose or from head injuries. Once in the bloodstream, the infectious agent must escape immune surveillance eg, antibodies, complement-mediated bacterial killing, and neutrophil phagocytosis.
Four common forms of mosquito-transmitted viral encephalitis are seen in the United States: To lessen the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito or other arthropod, people should limit outdoor activities at night, wear long-sleeved clothing when outdoors, use insect repellents that are most effective for that particular region of the country, and rid lawn and outdoor areas of free-standing pools of water, in which mosquitoes breed.
Some individuals may develop a skin rash and swollen lymph glands, while others may not show any symptoms. Effective vaccines are available to prevent Haemophilus influenza, pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis.
Some 6, cases of pneumococcal meningitis are reported in the United States each year. Outcomes in arboviral JE and EEE are catastrophic, similar to untreated HSE, with high mortality and severe morbidity, including mental retardation, hemiplegia, and seizures.
This rapidly progressing disease is the single most important cause of fatal sporadic encephalitis in the United States. Nitric oxide is a free radical molecule that can induce cytotoxicity when produced in high amounts. HSE, the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in Western countries, is relatively rare; the overall incidence is 0.
Many secondary mediators, such as IL-6, IL-8, nitric oxide, prostaglandins eg, prostaglandin E2 [PGE2]and platelet activation factor PAFare presumed to amplify this inflammatory event, either synergistically or independently.
International statistics Japanese virus encephalitis JEoccurring principally in Japan, Southeast Asia, China, and India, is the most common viral encephalitis outside the United States. Individuals who experience only headache, fever, and stiff neck may recover in weeks.
Mosquitoes or ticks inoculate arbovirus, and rabies virus is transferred via an infected animal bite or exposure to animal secretions.
Additionally, electroencephalography, or EEG, can identify abnormal brain waves by monitoring electrical activity in the brain noninvasively through the skull. Meningitis develops by the bacteria or viruses that cause meningitis inhabiting the respiratory organs.
Possible pathways for the migration of pathogens from the middle ear to the meninges include the following: Lyme disease, a bacterial infection spread by tick bite, occasionally causes meningitis, and very rarely encephalitis.
Antibiotics, developed to kill bacteria, are not effective against viruses. More than half of untreated cases are fatal. Free Essays Must Be Free! Epidemics in South and Central America have killed thousands of persons and left others with permanent, severe neurologic damage.
Consultation with a neurosurgeon is indicated; early shunt removal is usually necessary for cure. In more severe cases, confusion and disorientation, tremors, convulsions especially in the very youngand coma may occur. Lennie and George are "best friends" they go everywhere and do everything together.
Pneumococcal meningitis is the most common form of meningitis and is the most serious form of bacterial meningitis. In newborns, symptoms such as lethargy, irritability, tremors, seizures, and poor feeding generally develop between 4 and 11 days after delivery.
The arbovirus group is the most common cause of episodic encephalitis, with a reported incidence similar to that of HSV. An MRI can help identify brain and spinal cord inflammation, infection, tumors, and other conditions. For most encephalitis-causing viruses, no specific treatment is available.Aug 07, · From an epidemiologic and pathophysiologic perspective, encephalitis is distinct from meningitis, though on clinical evaluation both can be present, with signs and symptoms of meningeal inflammation, such as photophobia, headache, or stiff neck.
Pathophysiology. Portals of entry are virus specific.
Many viruses are transmitted by. Mar 10, · Words: Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Meningitis is an inflammation of the coverings of spinal cord and brain. Meningitis results from an infection to the cerebrospinal fluid in the spaces that surround the brain and spinal cord (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], ).
Jul 06, · What causes meningitis and encephalitis? Infectious causes of meningitis and encephalitis include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. For some individuals, environmental exposure (such as a parasite), recent travel, or an immunocompromised state (such as HIV, diabetes, steroids, chemotherapy treatment) are important risk factors.
Pathophysiology of Meningitis and Encephalitis Meningitis and encephalitis are two similar infections of the central nervous system that often lead to fatality of the host organism.
Both diseases occur when pathogens enter the blood stream and gain access into the central nervous system.
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Essay about Treating and Preventing Meningitis and Encephalitis Treating and Preventing Meningitis and Encephalitis The diseases, meningitis and encephalitis, cause various problems in the brain and should be avoided at all costs.Download