Plant growth and development

Thus, by switching on different sets of genes at the shoot apex, the plant can produce different types of primordia, in different spatial patterns.

Plant Development

Correlated with a photosynthetic function, the epidermis of these organs Plant growth and development made up of flat, transparent cells that allow the penetration of light into internal tissues.

By switching on these genes, the apical meristem abandons its chances of continuing vegetative growth and gambles its future on the production of gametes. The modules are connected to one another by supportive and transport tissue, and successive modules are precisely located relative to each other, giving rise to a repetitively patterned structure.

The switch from meristematic growth to flower formation is typically triggered by light. The adventitious plantlets then drop off the parent plant and develop as separate clones of the parent.

A fourth class, the sepallata mutants, has its three inner whorls all transformed into sepals. Figure A growing root tip.

Growth and Development

Other articles you might like: Variations on this basic repetitive theme can give rise to more complex architectures, including structures such as tendrils, thorns, branches, and flowers. A, from John Sibthorp, Flora Graeca. Figure Homeotic selector gene expression in an Arabidopsis flower.

This expansion is driven by an osmotically based turgor pressure that presses outward on the plant cell walland its direction is determined by the orientation of the cellulose fibrils in the cell wall, which constrain expansion along one axis see Plant growth and development These phenotypes identify four classes of homeotic selector genes, which, like the homeotic selector genes of Drosophila, all code for gene regulatory proteins.

Thus auxin alone can promote root formation, but in conjunction with gibberellin it can promote stem elongation, with cytokinin, auxin it can suppress lateral shoot outgrowth, and with ethylene it can stimulate lateral root growth.

In the phase of controlled expansion that generally follows cell divisionthe daughter cells may often increase in volume by a factor of 50 or more. The colored shading more For example, selected varieties or genotypes of wheat grow rapidly, maturing within days, whereas others, in the same environmental conditions, grow more slowly and mature within days.

Figure Axillary buds in the neighborhood of a shoot apex.

Postembryonic development, however, is focused on the apical meristems. Cell-cell communication is important in plant development, but cell recognition is likely less important than it is in animals since plant cells keep the same neighbors throughout their life.

In plants, as in flies, one can find homeotic mutations that convert one part of the pattern to the character of another. The series of modified leaves forming a flower can be compared to the series of body segments forming a fly.

Although the process of cell differentiation often begins while a cell is still enlarging, it is comparatively easy to distinguish in a root tip a zone of cell divisiona zone of oriented cell elongation which accounts for the growth in length of the rootand a zone of cell differentiation Figure This example shows how simple mutations, by switching the behavior of meri-stem cells, can transform plant structure—a principle of enormous importance in the breeding of plants for food.

It is the system of local signals within this tiny region that determines the pattern of primordia—the position of one leaf rudiment relative to the next, the spacing between them, and their location relative to the apical meristem itself. Large houseplants are often propagated by air layering.

The Shaping of Each New Structure Depends on Oriented Cell Division and Expansion Plant cells, imprisoned within their cell walls, cannot crawl about and cannot be shuffled as the plant grows; but they can divide, and they can swell, stretch, and bend.

There are three primary causes of this variation: The developmental switch is controlled instead by light, which, among other effects, acts on the seedling by inhibiting production of a class of plant hormones called brassinosteroids, discussed in Chapter Enlargement necessitates a change in the elasticity of the cell walls together with an increase in the size and water content of the vacuole.

The approximate zones in which cells can be found dividing, elongating, and differentiating are indicated. At first the cell divisions are asymmetric, producing one large and one small derivative.

Plant development

Guard cells form by a series of cell divisions from undifferentiated protoderm, including a final symmetric division that forms the two identical cells. Structure, growth and development Further information: Temperature has a multiplicity of effects on plants depending on a variety of factors, including the size and condition of the plant and the temperature and duration of exposure.

Once the hypocotyl has carried the cotyledons into the light, they expand, providing a broad surface for photosynthesis.

Figure Transformation of plant architecture by mutation:Plant hormones control many of the plant behaviors you’re used to seeing, such as the ripening of fruit, the growth of shoots upward and roots downward, the growth of plants toward the light, the dropping of leaves in the fall, and the growth and flowering of plants at particular times of the year.

This directional growth can occur via a plant's response to a particular stimulus, such as light (phototropism), gravity (gravitropism), water, (hydrotropism), and physical contact (thigmotropism).

This image shows the development of a normal plant. Plant growth and development IX. Plant Growth and Development from Seeds. 1. Germination - seed contains embryo in stage of arrested development. Plant development encompasses the growth and differentiation of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

Plant development shares many similarities with developmental processes in animals, but the fact that plants are nonmotile, photosynthetic organisms requires certain novel developmental processes in addition to the common ones.

“Development” and “growth” are sometimes used interchangeably in conversation, but in a botanical sense they describe separate events in the organization of the mature plant body.

Development is the progression from earlier to later stages in maturation, e.g. a fertilized egg develops into a mature tree.

It is an auxin, a member of one of six known classes of plant growth regulators (sometimes called plant hormones), all of which have powerful influences on plant development.

The five other known classes are the gibberellins, the cytokinins, abscisic acid, the gas ethylene, and the brassinosteroids.

Plant growth and development
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