The background and future of navigation technology

The use of 32 points by sailors of northern Europe, usually attributed to Flemish compass makers, is mentioned by Geoffrey Chaucer in his Treatise on the Astrolabe Page 12 Share Cite Suggested Citation: As early as an English instrument maker, Humphry Cole, invented the so-called patent log, in which a vaned rotor was towed from the stern, and its revolutions were counted on a register.

In the United States switched from the English standard to the metric, or international, standard of 1, metres 6, feet. The Mediterranean sailor could confidently distinguish the cold north wind from the warm south wind. Counterterrorist activities thus seek to reduce the likelihood that IT functionality will be diminished as a result of an attack or as a result of the damage that might come from the use of IT as a weapon against valued targets.

The threat is that such a person could use privileged information or system control to further his or her malign purposes.

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The assembly can be rotated to permit sighting on the distant object. The Phoenicians are credited with the discovery and use of Polaris the North Star. Pay Now or Pay Later. That is, someone with bad intentions gains access to some or all of the capabilities of the system or network or the information available through it.

The suspension of the compass bowl in gimbals originally used to keep lamps upright on tossing ships was first mentioned in In the United Kingdom a nautical mile is defined as 6, feet 1, metres. That is, the system or network continues to operate, but under some circumstances of operation, it does not provide accurate results or information The background and future of navigation technology one would normally expect.

Terrorism is usually defined in terms of non-state-sponsored attacks on civilians, perpetrated with the intent of spreading fear and intimidation. No doubt the same information had formerly been passed along by word of mouth, as it still is in some parts of the world. The binnacleformerly called the bittacle, is the receptacle in which the compass is mounted.

In short, IT is both a target and a weapon that can be deployed against other targets. Page 10 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Mitigation is relevant during the time immediately after an attack, and it generally involves actions related to damage and loss minimization, recovery, and reconstitution.

This practice died out about because it succeeded only for short voyages near the place where the compass was made; it caused confusion and difficulty on longer trips, especially in crossing the Atlantic to the American coast, where the declination was west instead of east as in Europe.

A flexible diaphragm or bellows attached to the bowl accommodates the change in volume of the liquid caused by temperature changes. Page 14 Share Cite Suggested Citation: These books, of which examples survive from the 4th century bc, described routes, headlands, landmarks, anchorages, currents, and port entrances.

In the British Admiralty set up a committee to seek rational methods of ensuring the accuracy of compasses installed on iron ships. It contains various correctors to reduce the deviations of the compass caused by the magnetism of the ship.

In modern instruments, the magnetic element is often in the form of a ring magnet, fitted within the float. In a later version the needle was pivoted near its centre on a pin fixed to the bottom of the bowl.

Mapping out the future of GPS technology

Different attackers might have different intentions with respect to IT. The declination in a given location varies over time.

Binnacles are sometimes constructed so that an image of part of the compass card can be projected or reflected through a tube onto a viewing screen on the deck below. The east point, pointing toward the Holy Land, was marked with a cross; the ornament into which this cross developed continued on British compass cards well into the 19th century.

To minimize swirl error, the card is often made considerably smaller in diameter than the bowl. By the 13th century a card bearing a painted wind rose was mounted on the needle; the navigator could then simply read his heading from the card.

Logs of this kind did not become common until the midth century, when the register was mounted on the aft rail, where it could be read at any time; another Englishman, Thomas Walker, introduced successive refinements of the patent log beginning in Well before the 10th century ad, Irish seafarers successively reached the Shetland Islands, the Faeroe Islandsand Iceland, crossing to miles to km of the North Atlantic at each stage.

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In addition, while IT per se refers to computing and communications technologies, the hardware and software i. Despite its acknowledged value, the magnetic compass long remained a fragile, troublesome, and unreliable instrument, subject to mysterious disturbances.

Information Technology for Counterterrorism: The display on a computer system presents information for a person who has his or her own psychological and emotional attributes and who is usually part of an organization with its own culture and standard operating procedures.

Direction finding The details of how these voyagers found their way are not known, but the use of the Sun and stars as guides is mentioned in many sources, including the works of Homer and Herodotusthe Bible, and the Norse sagas.

This everyday visual approach to navigation is called piloting. The simplest, and probably earliest, azimuth instrument consists of two sights on opposite sides of the compass bowl connected by a thread.Navigation: Navigation, science of directing a craft by determining its position, course, and distance traveled.

Navigation is concerned with finding the way to the desired destination, avoiding collisions, conserving fuel, and meeting schedules. Navigation is derived from the Latin navis (“ship”) and agere. technological trends in satellite based radio navigation (GNSS), combined with the TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS FOR FUTURE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS Michel MARY – Pierre-Jérôme CLEMENCEAU – Pierre BOUNIOL sensors technology is shown hereafter.

The trend can be summarized as follows. Ditching satellites and complex, powerful computers and opting for camera technology inspired by small mammals may be the future of navigation systems.

Dr Michael Milford from Queensland. Read chapter 1 Background and Introduction: Information technology (IT) is essential to virtually all of the nation’s critical infrastructures making th Login Register Cart Help Information Technology for Counterterrorism: Immediate Actions.

Here’s what the future of car navigation looks like. While navigation is the flashiest application of augmented reality in cars, the technology. The abstract digital technology background vector file is easy to modify in Adobe Illustrator.

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The background and future of navigation technology
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